Family feud: World War I

Numerous accounts of World War I,
known until World War II happened as just “the Great War”,
have commented on the relations (by birth or marriage)
between the rulers of three of the major participants,
Great Britain, Germany, and Russia.
I was recently reading Margaret MacMillan’s The War That Ended Peace
which emphasizes the personal characteristics of
the major decision-makers who enabled that war,
including those family relations.
It sharpened my knowledge of exactly what those relations were.
This major part of this post is a table
which attempts to show those relations.

Family Relations Between World War I Monarchs
List of German monarchs List of English monarchs
List of British monarchs
List of Danish monarchs List of Russian rulers List of Holy Roman Emperors
List of Austrian emperors
List of French monarchs
House of Hohenzollern House of Plantagenet
House of Lancaster
House of York
House of Tudor
House of Stuart
House of Hanover
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
House of Windsor
House of Glücksburg House of Romanov   House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg-Lorraine
House of Bourbon


King Edward III
b. 1312, r. 1327-77

Philippa of Hainault
(They had fourteen children!)
(Possible) Shakespeare play

Edward, the Black Prince
b. 1330, d. 1376
Joan of Kent
Note: Edward never became king,
but his son Richard II did.
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
b. 1340, d. 1399
Blanche of Lancaster
The third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault.
John never became king,
but his son Henry IV did.
Three succeeding houses of English sovereigns from 1399—
the Houses of Lancaster, York and Tudor
were descended from John through
Henry Bolingbroke, Joan Beaufort and John Beaufort, respectively.
Founder of the House of Lancaster.

King Richard II
b. 1367, r. 1377-99

Shakespeare play
King Henry IV (Bolingbroke)
b. 1367, r. 1399-1413

Mary de Bohun
Shakespeare play
First monarch from the House of Lancaster

King Henry V
b. 1386, r. 1413-22

Catherine of Valois
Shakespeare play

King Henry VI
b. 1421, r. 1422-61 and 1470-71

Shakespeare play
Last monarch from the House of Lancaster

Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York
b. 1411, d. 1460
Cecily Neville
Note: He never became king, but he fathered Edward IV and Richard III, who did.

King Edward IV
b. 1442,
r. 1461-70 and 1471-83

First monarch from the House of York.
King Richard III
b. 1452, r. 1483-85

Shakespeare play
Notes: Killed in the Battle of Bosworth Field, ending the Wars of the Roses.
Last monarch from the House of York.
Last of the Plantagenets.

King Henry VII
b. 1457, r. 1485-1509

First monarch in the House of Tudor.

King Henry VIII
b. 1491, r. 1509-47

Shakespeare play
A near contemporary of Martin Luther (1483-1546).

Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
b. 1415, r. 1452-93

King Edward VI
b. 1537, r. 1547-53

His mother was Jane Seymour
Queen Mary I
b. 1516, r. 1553-58

Her mother was Catherine of Aragon
Queen Elizabeth I
b. 1533, r. 1558-1603

Her mother was Anne Boleyn.
Elizabeth I, sometimes called "The Virgin Queen", famously never married and left no offspring.
Last monarch in the House of Tudor.

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
b. 1459, r. 1493-1519

Note: In 1967, Nonesuch Records released a two record set, “The Triumph of Maximilian I”,
featuring music of the 15th & 16th centuries by Heinrich Isaac, Paul Hofhaimer & Ludwig Senfl,
performed by London Ambrosian Singers (John McCarthy, conductor) and Vienna Renaissance Players.
A fantastic introduction to music of the Renaissance in central Europe.

Mary, Queen of Scots
b. 1542, d. 1587
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Note: Mary never ruled in England,
however her son James I did.

Philip I of Castile (Philip the Handsome)
b. 1478, d. 1506
Philip, son of Maximilian I, died before he could become Holy Roman Emperor.
Two of his sons did ascend, becoming Charles V and Ferdinand I.
He was a near contemporary of Martin Luther (1483-1546).

King James I
b. 1566, r. 1603-25

Anne of Denmark
Notes: This is the “King James” of the King James Version of the Protestant Bible.
First monarch from the House of Stuart.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
b. 1500, r. 1519-56

Charles was grandson of Maximilian I via Philip I of Castile.
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
b. 1503, r. 1558-64

Ferdinand was grandson of Maximilian I via Philip I of Castile.

King Charles I
b. 1600, r. 1625-49

Henrietta Maria of France
The transition between the two Charles's consisted of the following events:
the English Civil War, resulting in the deposing and execution of Charles I;
the “Commonwealth” (no monarch);
the “Protectorate” (no monarch);
the “Restoration”, resulting in the crowning of Charles II.

Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor
b. 1527, r. 1564-76
Charles II, Archduke of Austria
b. 1540
Charles never became emperor, but he was the son of Emperor Ferdinand I and father of Emperor Ferdinand II.

King Charles II
b. 1630, r. 1660-85
King James II
b. 1633, r. 1685-88

Anne Hyde
Note: James was deposed in the “Glorious Revolution

Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor
b. 1552, r. 1576-1612
Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor
b. 1557, r. 1612-19
Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
b. 1578, r. 1619-37

King William III
b. 1650, r. 1689-1704
Queen Mary II
b. 1662, r. 1689-94
(William and Mary)

Notes: They had no surviving children.
Mary was a daughter of King James II.

Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
b. 1608, r. 1637-57

Queen Anne
b. 1665, r. 1702-14

Notes: Anne left no surviving children, thus the succession passed to her Hanover relatives.
Handel wrote an ode, “Eternal source of light divine”, for her birthday in 1713.
Last monarch from the House of Stuart.

Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
b. 1640, r. 1657-1705
King Frederick I of Prussia
b. 1657, r. 1701-13

Sophia Charlotte of Hanover
King George I
b. 1660, r. 1714-27

Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick and Luneburg
His mother, Sophia of Hanover was a granddaughter of King James I
through her mother, Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia.
First monarch from the House of Hanover.
Tsar Peter I
(Peter the Great)

b. 1672, r. 1721-25
Tsar Catherine I
b. 1684, r. 1725-27
Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor
b. 1678, r. 1705-11

Note: Joseph I was lauded by name in BWV 71, written in 1708. ; “Joseph” is woven into the fugue that runs from 5m30s to 6m35s: “Muss täglich von neuen / Dich, Joseph, erfreuen.”
Henry IV,
King of France

b. 1563, r. 1589-1610
King Frederick William I of Prussia
b. 1688, r. 1713-40

Sophia Dorothea of Hanover
King George II
b. 1683, r. 1727-60

Caroline of Ansbach
Note: Handel’s Coronation Anthems were written for the coronation of George II in 1727;
Handel also wrote an anthem, “The Ways of Zion Do Mourn”, for the funeral of Queen Caroline in 1737.
There were four tsars
between Catherine I and Peter III,
with varying paternities,
per Wikipedia’s List of Russian rulers:
Peter II, b. 1715, r. 1727-30
Anna, b. 1693, r. 1730-40
Ivan VI (disputed), b. 1740, r. 1740-41 (!)
Elizabeth, b. 1709, r. 1741-62
Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
b. 1685, r. 1711-40
Louis XIII,
King of France

b. 1601, r. 1610-43
Frederick II
of Prussia
the Great)

b.1712, r. 1740-86
Prince Augustus William of Prussia
b. 1722, d. 1758
Luise of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Prince Frederick
b. 1707
Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Tsar Peter III
b. 1728, r. 1762
Tsar Catherine II
(Catherine the Great)

b. 1729, r. 1762-96
Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor
b. 1697, r. 1742-45
Louis XIV,
King of France

b. 1638, r. 1643-1715
King Frederick William II of Prussia
b. 1744, r. 1786-97

Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt
King George III
b. 1738, r. 1760-1820

Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Tsar Paul I
b. 1754, r. 1796-1801

Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
b. 1708, r. 1745-65

Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia
b. 1717
(note the "Maria Theresa" Symphony (#48) by Franz Joseph Haydn)
Louis XV,
King of France

b. 1710, r. 1715-74
King Frederick William III of Prussia
b. 1770, r. 1797-1840

Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
King George IV
b. 1762, r. 1820-30
King William IV
b. 1765, r. 1830-37
Prince Edward,
Duke of Kent and Strathearn

b. 1767
Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Tsar Alexander I
b. 1777,
r. 1801-25
Tsar Nicholas I
b. 1796,
r. 1825-55

Charlotte of Prussia
Joseph II,
Holy Roman Emperor

b. 1741, r. 1765-90
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
b. 1747, r. 1790-92

Maria Luisa of Spain
Marie Antoinette,
Queen of France

b. 1755, r. 1774-92,
guillotined in 1793
Louis XVI,
King of France

b. 1754, r. 1774-92,
guillotined in 1793
Frederick William IV
of Prussia

b. 1795, r. 1840-61

Elisabeth Ludovika of Bavaria
Kaiser Wilhelm I
b. 1797,
r. Prussia 1861-71,
r. Germany 1871-88

Augusta of
Queen Victoria
b. 1819, r. 1837-1901

Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Last monarch from the House of Hanover.
King Christian IX of Denmark
b. 1818, r. 1863-1906

Louise of Hesse-Kassel
Tsar Alexander II
b. 1818, r. 1855-81

Marie of Hesse
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, r. 1792-1806
Francis I, Emperor of Austria, r.1804-35

b. 1768

Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily
Kaiser Frederick III
b. 1831, r. 1888
Princess Victoria
b. 1840
Princess Alice
b. 1843
King Edward VII
b. 1841, r. 1901-10

Note: He was the sole British king from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Princess Alexandra Prince William =
King George I of Greece

b. 1845, r. 1863-1913
Princess Maria Tsar Alexander III
b. 1845, r. 1881-94
Ferdinand I
b. 1793, r. 1835-48
Archduke Franz Karl of Austria
b. 1802
Princess Sophie of Bavaria
Kaiser Wilhelm II
b. 1859, r. 1888-1918
Princess Victoria
b. 1863
King George V
b. 1865, r. 1910-36

Mary of Teck
First monarch from the House of Windsor
Tsar Nicholas II
b. 1868, r. 1894-1917

Alexandra (granddaughter of Queen Victoria via Princess Alice)
Franz Joseph I
Emperor of Austria and
Apostolic King of Hungary

b. 1830, r. 1848-1916
Archduke Karl Ludwig
b. 1833
Princess Maria Annunciata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
Princess Alice of Battenberg
b. 1885
King Edward VIII
b. 1894, r. 1936
King George VI
b. 1895, r. 1936-52

Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
b. 1863, assassinated 1914-06-28
Queen Elizabeth II
b. 1926, r. 1952-
Prince Philip
b. 1921
Note: His mother was Princess Alice of Battenberg.
b. 1948
Diana Spencer
b. 1982
Catherine Middleton
b. 2013

Note that Prince Philip is a great-great-grandchild of Queen Victoria,
via Princess Alice, Princess Victoria, and Princess Alice of Battenberg,
and great-grandchild of Christian IX and Louise,
via George I of Greece and Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark.

A typical person has four grandparents;
thus three unrelated individuals will have a total of twelve grandparents,
while three siblings will still have just four grandparents.
The trio of Kaiser Wilhelm II, King George V and Tsar Nicholas II
have eight grandparents,
thus by one measure they are halfway between being totally unrelated
and being siblings.
The collapsing may be expressed by “equations”:

the paternal grandparents of King George V =
Queen Victoria and Prince Albert =
the maternal grandparents of Kaiser Wilhelm II

the maternal grandparents of King George V =
King Christian IX and Queen Louise =
the maternal grandparents of Tsar Nicholas II

Between Queen Elizabeth II and her consort, Prince Philip,
we have the following “equations”:

(Queen Elizabeth father : King George VI father : King George V father : King Edward VII parents) =
Queen Victoria and Prince Albert =
(Prince Philip mother : Princess Alice of Battenberg mother : Princess Victoria mother : Princess Alice parents).
In words,
Queen Elizabeth’s paternal-paternal-paternal great-great-grandparents =
Queen Victoria and Prince Albert =
Prince Philip’s maternal-maternal-maternal great-great-grandparents.

(Queen Elizabeth father : King George VI father : King George V mother = Princess Alexandria parents ) =
King Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel =
(Prince Philip father : Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark father : Prince William = King George I of Greece parents).
In words,
Queen Elizabeth’s paternal-paternal-maternal great-great-grandparents =
King Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel =
Prince Philip’s paternal-paternal great-grandparents.

George V and Nicholas II:
see the post “King George V & Tsar Nicholas II”

Here are some of the articles written for the hundredth anniversary
of the start of World War I:

It's Not the Guns of August -- It's the Trenches of October
100 years later,
we still spend too much time talking about how World War I started.
The real lessons are in why it lasted so long.

BY Stephen M. Walt
Foreign Policy Blog, 2014-07-30

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